Volcanoes are mountains that contain molten rock, called magma, below the surface. They are natural, caused by the pressure and temperature inside the Earth. An eruption can cause rocks to shoot out through the opening and fill the air with gases. Magma is lava when it is above the surface of the Earth.
How are volcanoes formed?
Volcanoes form as magma from the Earth’s mantle rises towards the surface. We call this rising magma a mantle plume. Once at the surface, the magma can erupt from the vent, known as an orifice. Remember, we call magma on Earth’s surface ‘lava.’ As the vent continues to erupt, the lava forms new igneous rock. This causes the mountain to grow bigger.
What are some well-known volcanoes?
Information on current volcanic activity around the world available here.
What are the different types of volcanoes?
Other Great Resources:
USGS On Volcano Types: https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/types.html
Shorter Overview of Types with Diagrams: https://www.zmescience.com/other/science-abc/types-of-volcano/
Bill Nye on Volcanoes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4F9ovQf9-dg
Volcano Facts Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-6bGUffwtA