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Types of Erosion

Erosion occurs when particles of Earth’s crust are worn away and moved to other locations. This is due to forces such as wind, water, and ice. Erosion only affects the surface of the Earth and doesn’t affect the mantle or the core in any way. Unfortunately, it can also have negative effects. For example, on farmers and their soil quality. Let’s explore the three different types of erosion.

Wind Erosion

Wind erosion occurs when wind carries particles of the soil and displaces it from one place to another. This is one of the weakest types of erosion. Yett has serious negative effects on the environment. It damages land and plants, damages the quality of the soil, and creates air contamination.
 
There are three types of soil movement which take place during wind erosion. These are: suspension, saltation, and surface creep.

Suspension

Suspension occurs when small sediment particles are thrown into the air. The process can cause particles to move very far and very fast over long distances.

Saltation

Saltation is like suspension, except soil particles move horizontally across the ground. This can cause far worse damage to the soil and land than suspension. In contrast, particles moved by saltation travel approximately four times longer distance-wise.

Surface Creep

Surface creep occurs to particles that are too heavy to be lifted into the air. They simply roll across the surface, which also leads to severe soil deterioration.
Wind erosion in effect.

Wind erosion can cause sandstorms, especially in desert climates. The Dust Bowl was a series of severe dust storms in the United States in the 1930s which caused severe drought and other negative agricultural effects.

Water Erosion

Water erosion occurs when water transports soil and other natural particles from one place to another. The four types of water erosion are interrill, rill, gully, and streambank erosion. 
 
When walking around in your neighborhood, you might have seen small dents in the road. These would look almost like mini craters. This is most likely the result of interrill erosion. When water particles continuously splash down and create a small imprint in the soil.
 
Have you ever seen clear lines in the ground where streams of water have flown through? This is rill erosion, where surface runoff creates a small channel in the soil.
 
Gully erosion is very similar to rill erosion, but has far more severe effects. When a rainstorm or downpour occurs, they create large cuts in the land that are usually more than one foot deep. This leads to huge holes and trenches in the land.
 
Streambank erosion is caused by large flowing bodies of water. These streams move the soil and particles around. This changes the landscape of the environment.
The Grand Canyon was formed from erosion.

The Colorado River and its effects on the landscape around it are a perfect example of streambank erosion.

Glacial Erosion

Glaciers are massive mountains of ice which move extremely slowly. When a glacier hits land, water melts below the glacier and seeps into the soil. This causes the displacement of dirt particles as well as the weakening of soil layers. The glacier now has an abrasive underside, filled with rocks and other particles. 
Glacial erosion.

When glaciers contact land, there can be huge negative effects on the ground.

 
As it moves over the landscape, it creates large scratches in the ground where it has pierced the ground. These are called glacial striations.

Other Great Resources

 
Differences Between Weathering and Erosion: 

 
Erosion Facts by Kiddle: https://kids.kiddle.co/Erosion
Written by: Varsha Rammohan.